Soil Additions

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A deeper look at the relationship between root carbon pools and the vertical distribution of the soil carbon pool (2017)

Authors: Dietzel, R., Liebman, M., & Archontoulis, S.

Publication Details: Soil, 3(3),139-152.

Executive Summary/Abstract

There was a significant loss of SOC in prairie soils after changing from prairie grasses to annually tilled crops. The root architecture and distribution of perennial and annual plants differ significantly. Results from other studies do not align rooting habits with SOC found at depths. The greatest amount of soil C is found below 0.2 m depth, and only a small amount of plant roots are found below this level. After considering climatic and geological influences, the correlation between the C to N ratio (C:N) and the accumulation of SOC in the soil profile may significantly affect the outcome. By investigating the land use change and managing for a return to prairie grasses, it is possible to find out the correlation between the C:N and SOC accumulation.

Soil carbon dynamics under different cropping and pasture management in temperate Australia: Results of three long-term experiments (2011)

Authors: Chan, K., Conyers, M., Li, G., Helyar, K., Poile, G., Oates, A., & Barchia, I.

Publication Details: Soil Research (Collingwood, Vic.), 49(4), 320-328.

Executive Summary/Abstract

With comprehensive results in SOC accumulation due to differing management practices for pasture and tillage systems and very few long-term trials and effects based in Australia, this long-term trial offers more significant trends to give insights into various management practices in cropping.

Soil carbon sequestration to depth in response to long-term phosphorus fertilization of grazed pasture (2019)

Authors: Coonan, E. C., Richardson, A. E., Kirkby, C. A., Kirkegaard, J. A., Amidy, M. R., Simpson, R. J., & Strong, C. L.

Publication Details: Geoderma, 338, 226-235.

Executive Summary/Abstract

Most studies into P inputs and the relationship to SOC accumulation only measure soil to depths of 20 em. This study investigates P inputs, higher stocking rates and SOC accumulation down to 1m. Long-term benefits  were noticed for SOC accumulation to depths of 60 em.

The positive relationship between soil quality and crop production: A case study on the effect of farm compost application (2014)

Authors: D’Hose, T., Cougnon, M., De Vliegher, A.,Vandecasteele, B., Viaene, N., Cornelis, W., Van Bockstaele, E., & Reheul, D.

Publication Details: Applied Soil Ecology : a Section of Agriculture,Ecosystems & Environment, 75, 189–198.

Executive Summary/Abstract

This article explores farm compost as a method to improve the sustainability of farms by increasing soil qualities – physical, chemical and biological. Increasing the soil quality could equate to higher and better quality yield; the former is much easier to quantify and is a metric in this study.

Soil organic carbon stock in grasslands: Effects of inorganic fertilizers, liming and grazing in different climate settings (2018)

Authors: Eze, S., Palmer, S. M., & Chapman, P. J.

Publication Details: Journal of Environmental Management, 223, 74–84.

Executive Summary/Abstract

With many inconsistent findings in multiple meta-analyses and original research on the fate of SOC from grazing, fertilisers and liming, this meta-analysis aims to find a definitive answer as to how grazing impacts soils(and in particular SOC), taking in the larger perspective of climate, soils and other factors beyond management into account.

Evaluation of the Foliar Application of Nano Urea on the Performance of Rabi Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) (2022)

Authors: Goud, G., Sudhakar, K., Pasha, M., & Madhavi, A.

Publication Details: International Journal of Environment and ClimateChange, 12(11), 2700-2706.

Executive Summary/ Abstract Nitrogen (N) fertiliser is essential for the quality and quantity of proteins and yields in oil seeds. Assessing appropriate N rates as a top dressing for gaining greater quality and quantity is challenging. Nanotechnology enables understanding and managing N-fertiliser foliar applications to increase quality and yield whilst reducing costs to the farmer.

Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration after Biochar Application: A Global Meta-Analysis (2021)

Authors: Gross, A., Bromm, T., & Glaser, B.

Publication Details: Agronomy (Basel), 11(12), 2474–.

Executive Summary/Abstract

Biochar technologies are relatively new, as is the information surrounding their ability to accumulate SOC. A meta-analysis of 64 papers/experiments with 736 treatments investigated biochar’s short and “long-term fate” in growing systems.

Organic carbon and nitrogen accumulation in orchard soil with organic fertilization and cover crop management: A global meta-analysis (2022)

Authors: Hu, Y., Zhan, P., Thomas, B. W., Zhao, J., Zhang, X., Yan,H., Zhang, Z., Chen, S., Shi, X., & Zhang, Y.

Publication Details: The Science of the Total Environment, 852, 158402–158402.

Executive Summary/Abstract

Tillage, herbicide use and bare soil are a feature of many orchard systems (olives, citrus, apples, grapes), leading to a decline in SOC. Livestock manure, compost, and cover crops are a way to reduce SOC losses as well as fertilising and managing the crop. This study is a meta-analysis investigating practice change and SOC and STN stock changes.

Annual and perennial crop composition impacts on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics at two different depths (2022)

Authors: Means, M., Crews, T., & Souza, L.

Publication Details: Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 37(5),437-444.

Executive Summary/Abstract 

It is understood that tillage influences the fluxes of N and C in the soil. To reduce the effects of tillage, some farmers have turned to perennial grain crops such as Kernza. There is little information about how these crops affect N and S in the soil.

Changes in soil organic carbon and nitrogen after 47 years with different tillage, stubble and fertiliser management in a Vertisol of north-eastern Australia (2020)

Authors: Page, K., Dalal, R., Reeves, S., Wang, W., Jayaraman, S.,& Dang, Y.

Publication Details: Soil Research (Collingwood, Vic.), 58(4), 346–.

Executive Summary/Abstract

No-till systems have been widely adopted to enhance soil characteristics and improve soil health. This study focuses on tillage, stubble and fertiliser management over long periods to assess claims of soil health.

Net effect of liming on soil organic carbon stocks: A review (2015)

Authors: Paradelo, R., Virto, I., & Chenu, C.

Publication Details: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 202, 98–107.

Executive Summary/Abstract

Lime is used to correct the pH in the soil to increase plant growth potential. The addition of lime has several effects on soil health. Some of these effects either increase or decrease SOC stocks: an increase in SOC resulting from higher plant productivity, a decrease in SOC stocks resulting from increased organic matter mineralisation, and an increase in SOC stocks due to improved soil physical attributes. These effects do not affect SOC stocks equally. This paper explores the net change of SOC stocks with these factors in mind.

Do agrosystems change soil carbon and nutrient stocks in a semiarid environment? (2022)

Authors: Santana, M. da S., Andrade,, Sampaio, E. de S., Ferreira, T., Salviano, A., Silva, D. da, Cunha, T., & Giongo, V.

Publication Details: Journal of Arid Environments, 201, 104747–.

Executive Summary/Abstract 

Ecological processes and nutrient cycling are affected due to land use change from native forests to agricultural systems. This paper investigates the changing dynamic of soil nutrients from land use change from native forests to agricultural systems.

On-farm compost: a useful tool to improve soil quality under intensive farming systems (2016)

Authors: Scotti, R., Pane, C., Spaccini, R., Palese, A. M., Piccolo,A., Celano, G., & Zaccardelli, M.

Publication Details: Applied Soil Ecology: a Section of Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 107, 13–23.

Executive Summary/Abstract

Municipal compost is considered essential for removing organic waste from general waste. On-farm compost is a way to repurpose waste created from the farm. Both composts can be used as a source of fertility for the soil. This research investigates the difference in soil health after adding municipal compost or on-farm compost.

Changes in soil carbon, nitrogen and sulphur content as influenced by liming and nitrogen fertilization of three energy crops (2017)

Authors: Šiaudinis, G., Liaudanskiene, I., & Slepetiene, A.

Publication Details: Icelandic Agricultural Sciences (IAS)

Executive Summary/Abstract

In acidic soils, lime can be used to raise pH. This article investigates other effects on soil health, especially TOC, TN, Total S and C:N ratio in three different bioenergy crops. This research was completed in acidic moraine loam in Lithuania.

Amendments with humified compost effectively sequester organic carbon in agricultural soils (2020)

Authors: Spaccini, R., & Piccolo, A.

Publication Details: Land Degradation & Development, 31(10), 1206–1216.

Executive Summary/Abstract 

Enhancing the qualities of soil by improving the soil’s organic matter is essential. Organic matter is important for Water-Stable Aggregates (WSA) to develop and protect the soil and for TOC accumulation in bulk soil.

Irrigation, soil organic carbon and N2O emissions. A review (2013)

Authors: Trost, B., Prochnow, A., Drastig, K., Meyer-Aurich, A., Ellmer, F. & Baumecker., M.

Publication Details: Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 2013, 33 (4), pp.733-749. ff10.1007/s13593-013-0134-0ff.

Executive Summary/Abstract

Irrigation is an important tool to stabilise the increasing unpredictability of the climate. Water restriction is the largest cause of yield restriction. Worldwide arable land under irrigation is 22%. This study investigates the impact of irrigation on SOC sequestration and N2O and CO2 emissions.

Effects of no-tillage and liming amendment combination on soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization (2019)

Authors: Vazquez, E., Benito, M., Espejo, R., & Teutscherova, N.

Publication Details: European Journal of Soil Biology, 93, 103090–.

Executive Summary/Abstract

This article investigates the relationship between traditional tillage (TT), no-till (NT), liming and no liming onTOC and TN, C and N mineralisation and F:B.

Quantifying direct yield benefits of soil carbon increases from cover cropping (2023)

Authors: Vendig, I., Guzman, A., De La Cerda, G., Esquivel, K., C.Mayer, A., Ponisio, L., & Bowles T.

Publication Details: Nat Sustain

Executive Summary/Abstract 

The benefits of accumulating carbon may lead to soil health and crop yield increases. This article investigates the parameters of yield and SOC increases from incorporating cover cropping into rotations.

Below ground carbon inputs to soil via root biomass and rhizodeposition of field-grown maize and wheat at harvest are independent of net primary productivity (2018)

Authors: Hirte, J., Leifeld, J., Abvien, S.,Oberholzer, H. & Mayer,J.

Publication Details: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 265, 556-56

Executive Summary/Abstract 

Below-ground carbon inputs comprise 30 – 90% of organic carbon inputs in the soil and have a longer residency time than crop residues above the surface. The two origins of these below-ground inputs are root biomass and rhizodeposition. Most studies into this process do not account for the whole life cycle of the plant.

Remineralizing soils? The agricultural usage of silicate rock powders: A review (2022)

Authors: Swoboda, P., Döring, T. F. & Hamer, M.

Publication Details: The Science of the Total Environment, 807(Pt 3),150976–150976.

Executive Summary/Abstract

In tropical climates, soil nutrient depletion and the cost of fertilisers are limiting factors to growing food crops. Both macro and micronutrients are difficult to afford and access and are highly leachable when added to tropical soils. Finely ground silicate rock powders may be one solution. As a slow-release fertiliser and soil ameliorant, this solution has mixed reviews regarding its effectiveness. This article aims to delve deeper into the factors influencing its success and notable benefits.

Deep soil inventories reveal that impacts of cover crops and compost on soil carbon sequestration differ in surface and subsurface soils (2019)

Authors: Tautges, N. E., Chiartas, J. L., Gaudin, A. C. M., O’Geen,A. T., Herrera, I., & Scow, K. M.

Publication Details: Global Change Biology, 25(11), 3753–3766.

Executive Summary/Abstract 

Studies in cover cropping, compost and manure additions and perennial crops and pastures mostly report increases in SOC. Broad assumptions in research have been made as to the depth to which these management practices influence SOC.

Jumpstart of soil organic matter with highly stabilized organic amendment: Implications for climate-smart agriculture (2023)

Authors: Tian, G., Chiu, C.-Y., Oladeji, O., Johnston, T., Morgan, B., Cox, A., Granato, T., Zhang, H., & Podczerwinski, E.

Publication Details: Environmental Challenges (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 12, 100726-.

Executive Summary/Abstract 

Alternatives need to be investigated to enhance crop performance and reduce the need for chemical fertiliser. Aged and stabilised compost and/or biosolids are a possible alternative. These alternatives have yield and soil health benefits that buffer soil and crop the effects of climate variability and severity with the bonus of reducing fertiliser needs, emissions, and sequestering carbon.